There is no direct connection from Madurai to Rameswaram. However, you can take the train to Ramanathapuram (RMD), take the walk to Ramanathapuram, then take the bus to Rameshwaram. Alternatively, you can travel from Madurai to Rameswaram in around 2 h 59 min.
How to get from Madurai to Rameswaram
From Madurai Junction (MDU) train to Ramanathapuram (RMD), walk to Ramanathapuram, then bus to Rameshwaram. 3 h 56 min ₹1,008. From Madurai taxi to Rameswaram. 2 h 59 min ₹3,326. From Madurai drive to Rameswaram. 2 h 59 min ₹1,403.