Mayiladuthurai (formerly known as Mayavaram or Mayuram) is a major town in Mayiladuthurai district in Tamil Nadu, India and the headquarters of the district. The town is located at a distance of 281 km from the state capital, Chennai. Mayiladuthurai is known for the Mayuranathaswami Temple, a prominent Shaivite shrine. It is well connected by road and rail transport. Mayiladuthurai serves as a major junction in main line connecting Chennai with Trichy. Mayiladuthurai was ruled by Medieval Cholas and subsequently ruled by various dynasties, including the Vijayanagar Empire, Delhi Sultanate, Thanjavur Nayaks, Thanjavur Marathas and the British Empire. Mayiladuthurai was a part of the erstwhile Tanjore district until India's independence in 1947 and Thanjavur district until 1991 and subsequently a part of the newly formed Nagapattinam district. The town is known for agriculture, metal working and weaving. The region around Mayiladuthurai has considerable mineral deposits.