Gwalior (pronunciation) is a major city in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and one of the Counter-magnet cities. Located 343 km south of Delhi, the capital city of India, 120 km from Agra and 414 km from Bhopal, the state capital, Gwalior occupies a strategic location in the Gird region of India. The historic city and its fortress have been ruled by several historic northern Indian kingdoms. From the Kachchhapaghatas in the 10th century, Tomars in the 13th century, it was passed on to the Mughal Empire, then to the Maratha in 1754, followed by the Scindia in the 18th century. A study of urban pollution in 2016 found the city to have the highest level of air pollution in India, and the second highest in the world.