Chesham is in the Chiltern Hills, Buckinghamshire, England, 11 mi southeast of the county town of Aylesbury. Chesham is a civil parish designated a town council within Chiltern district. It is in the Chess Valley and surrounded by farmland. The earliest records of Chesham as a settlement are from the second half of the 10th century although there is archaeological evidence of people in this area from around 8000 BC. Henry III granted the town a royal charter for a weekly market in 1257.